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Philosophy of Mind
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So I'm taking Philosophy of Mind this semester, and mostly it's consisted of an overview of the historical philosophical stances on what the mind is. Here's what I've taken to be the major positions so far:

Dualism: The brain is physical and the mind is some sort of non-physical, spirit-type substance. They interact somehow.

Behaviorism: Outward behavior is a product of the mind, and the only thing that can be measured or studied.

Identity Theory: Mental states are composed of brain states.

Eliminative Materialism: What we call in folk psychology mental states, like "anger" and "pain", are just neurons firing. At some point we'll have it all figured out, and this terminology will not exist.

Functionalism: The mind is what the brain does.

Most cognitive scientists, psychologists, neuroscientists, AI researchers, and so on are some kind of monist. So they reject the idea that there's some kind of "spooky stuff" separate from the body, but that mind and body are one. For example, we don't think of digestion as separate from the stomach or the work that muscles do as separate from muscles.

Although I would guess the average American, if asked about it, would say they're a dualist. This Harris poll shows that 84% of Americans believe in the soul after death. Now, I guess you could believe that the soul has nothing to do with cognition, personality, feelings, etc., but then, what would be the point of believing in a soul if it had nothing to do with what we generally associate to be you?

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